Tag Archives: Fibroplastic phase

Wound Healing and Ficus arnottiana Miq. – A Review: Ashok Kumar

26 Nov

Introduction

An herb is a plant that is valued for flavor, scent, medicinal, or other purposes. Herbs are mainly used for their medicinal purposes, because of their healing attributes some herbs have come to be known as medicinal herbs. The herbal products today symbolize safety in contrast to the synthetic that are regarded as unsafe to humans and environment. The herbal products have fewer side effects as compared to so they are wildly used for medicinal purposes [1]. India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products.Indian traditional medicines based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy[2]. Wound healing, or wound repair, is the critical physiological process by which the body repairs skin or organ tissue after injury.[3] A wound which is disrupted state of tissue caused by physical, chemical, microbial or immunological insult ultimately heal either by regeneration or fibroplasias. Wound healing is a complex process that results in the contraction and closure of the wound and restoration of functional barrier:

(1)    Cutaneous wound repair is accompanied by an ordered and definable sequence of biological events starting with wound closure and progressing to the repair and remodeling of damaged tissue.

(2)    Repair of injured tissues includes inflammation, proliferation, and migration of different cell types.

(3)    Inflammation, which constitutes a part of the acute response, result in a coordinated influx of neutrophils at the wound site.4]

 

Classification of Wound

 

Wounds are classified as open and closed wound on the underlying cause of wound creation and acute and chronic wounds on the basis of physiology of wound healing.

 1.      Open wounds:

In this case blood escapes the body and bleeding is clearly visible. It is further classified as: Incised wound, Laceration or tear wound, Abrasions or superficial wounds, Puncture wounds, Penetration wounds and gunshot wounds

2.      Closed wounds:

 In closed wounds blood escapes the circulatory system but remains in the body. It includes Contusion or bruises, hematomas or blood tumor, Crush injury etc[5].

3.      Acute wounds:

Acute wound is a tissue injury that normally proceeds through an orderly and timely reparative process that results in sustained restoration of anatomic and functional integrity. Acute wounds are usually caused by cuts or surgical incisions and complete the wound healing process within the expected time frame

4.      Chronic wounds:

Chronic wounds are wounds that have failed to progress through the normal stages of healing and therefore entera state of pathologic inflammation chronic wounds either require a prolonged time to heal or recur frequently. Local infection, hypoxia, trauma, foreign bodies and systemic problems such as diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, immunodeficiency or medications are the most frequent causes of chronic wounds [5, 6].

 

Process of Wound Healing

The healing process can be categorized into primary and secondary healing.  Primary healing, or first intention, is the least complex as it refers to the healing together of the edges of clean, closely opposed wound edges.  Secondary healing or second intention involves not only apposition of edges, but also the filling of a soft tissue defect as seen in traumatic, infection or disease induced wounds. Delayed primary closure or third intention is a combination of the first two.

 

Phases of Wound Healing

There are mainly 3 phases of wound healing there response to injury, either surgically or traumatically induced, is immediate and the damaged tissue or wound then passes through three phases in order to affect a final repair:

  1. The inflammatory phase
  2. The fibroplastic phase
  3. The remodelling phase

The inflammatory phase prepares the area for healing and immobilizes the wound by causing it to swell and become painful, so that movement becomes restricted. The fibro plastic phase rebuilds the structure, and then the remodeling phase provides the final form.

a.      Inflammatory phase

The inflammatory phase starts immediately after the injury that usually last between 24 and 48 hrs and may persist for up to 2 weeks in some cases The inflammatory phase launches the haemostatic mechanisms to immediately stop blood loss from the wound site. Clinically recognizable cardinal sign of inflammation, rubor, calor, tumor, dolor and function-laesa appear as the consequence. This phase is characterized by vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation to induce blood clotting and subsequently vasodilatation and phagocytosis to produce inflammation at the wound.

 b.      Fibroplastic phase

The second phase of wound healing is the fibroplastic phase that lasts upto 2 days to 3 weeks after the inflammatory phase. This phase comprises of three steps viz., granulation, contraction and epithelialisation. In the granulation step fibroblasts form a bed of collagen and new capillaries are produced. Fibroblast produces a variety of substances essential for wound repair including glycosaminoglycans and collagen. Under the step of contraction wound edges pull together to reduces the defects in the third step epithelial tissues are formed over the wound

c.       Remodeling phase

This phase last for 3 weeks to 2 years. New collagen is formed in this phase. Tissue tensile strength is increased due to intermolecular cross-linking of collagen via vitamin-C dependent hydroxylation. The scar flattens and scar tissues become 80% as strong as the original.

The wound healing activities of plants have since been explored in folklore. Many Ayurvedic herbal plants have a very important role in the process of wound healing. Plants are more potent healers because they promote the wound healing.[7]

 

Hemostasis

Inflammation (acutephase)

 Proliferation (Granulation and epthelization)

 Remodelling (Partly overlap and controlled by cytokines andgrowth factors)

 

Plants Having Wound Healing Activity

S. No.

Name of the plant

Family

Common name

Part Used

1.

Abies webbiana ind[9]

Pinaceae

Talisa

Leaves

2.

Clidemia hirada[10]

Melastomaceae

Kaurasiga

Leaves

3.

Epipremnum pinnatum[10]

Araceae

Naca

Bark

4.

Hibiscus rosasinesis[12]

Malvaceae

Senitoa

Leaves, Root

5.

Hoya australis[11]

Asclipidaceae

Wabilevu

Leaves

6.

Terminali acattapa[10]

Combretaceae

Tavola

Bark, Leaves

7.

Thespesia populnea[10]

Malvaceae

Mulomulo

Leaves, bark

8.

Vitex trifolia[13]

Verbnaceae

Bulokaka

Leaves

9.

Calophyllum inophyllum[14]

Clusiaceae

Dilo

Leaves, bark

10.

Centella asiatica[12]

Apiaceae

Totodro

Whole plant

11.

Adathoda vasicaNees[17]

Acanthaceac

Basak

Leaves

12.

Adiantum,lunulatum Burm[9]

Polypopdiaceae

Hansapdi

Leaves

13.

Mikani micrantha[8]

Asteraceae

Fuesaina

Leaves

14.

Psidium guajava[11]

Myretaceae

Tuava

Leaves

15.

Premna obtusifolia[12]

Verbenaceae

Yaro

leaves

16.

Morinda citrifolia[16]

Rubiaceae

Kura,nonu

Root

17.

Miscanthusfloridulus[9)

Poaceae

Gasau

Leaves

18.

Wollastoni abiflora[11]

Asteraceae

Makakula

Leaves

19.

Guettard aspeciosa[8]

Rubiaceae

Buabua

Bark

20.

Andropogonm uricantus Retz[9]

Graminae

Virana

Root

 

Ficus arnottiana Miq. (Moraceae)[18]

Plants of Ficus species are used extensively in various parts of the world against a wide range of ailments. The synergistic action of its metabolite production is most probably responsible for the beneficial effects of the plant. Ficus is a large genus of trees or shrubs, often climbers with milky juice, widely distributed throughout the tropics of both hemispheres, but particularly abundant in South-east Asia and Polynesia. About 65 species of Ficus occurs in India. The genus is remarkable for the large variation in the habitat of its species. It contains some of giants of the vegetable kingdom such as Banyan tree, Pipal tree and Indian rubbers and also small wiry climbers like Ficus pumila and Ficus scandens Roxbs. Traditionally, various parts of the Ficus species are used for medicinal purpose.

 

Classification of Ficus arnottiana Miq.

 Kingdom:        Plantae

Division:          Magnoliophyta

Phylum:           Tracheophyta

Class:               Magnoliopsida

Subclass:         Rosidae

Order:              Rosales

Family:            Moraceae

Genus:             FicusL.

Species:           arnottiana

Botanical name: Ficusarnottiana

Ficus  is also known as Paraspipal in Hindi,  as Parisah, Plaksha in Sanskrit, as Crown (Ceylon) in English and as Kallal in Malyali. It has synonym Urostigma arnottianum and trade name Paraspipal.

The tree grows abundantly throughout India, mostly in the rocky hills of the Deccan peninsula up to an elevation of about 1350 m. It is also wide spread in Sri Lanka. [19, 20] Paraspipal is a glabrous tree or shrub without aerial roots, reaching upto 20 m in height; leaves subcoriaceous 5-15 cm., broadly ovate, alternate, narrowed upwards to the shortly caudate-acuminate apex, with entire margins, base usually cordate; bark pale, smooth; petioles 5-15 cm; lamina simple approximately heart shaped with broadly ovate base and shortly caudate-acuminate apex; fruit achenes. [19, 20]

 

Ficus Arnottiana Miq., medicinal herb, wound healing herb, wound healing

Figure 1: Ficus arnottiana Miq.

 Ficus arnottiana Miq. grows wild in the forests of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand mainly on rocks.Ficus can also be grown from seed. Natural regeneration is done by seed. It grows on rocks, chiefly on dry rocks, inside shoals, sometimes grows on tress as an epiphyte wild. The fruit of the plant contain β- sitosterol, gluacol acetate, glucose and friedelin. [21]

Leaf of the plant has aphrodisiac activity while the bark of the plant have astringent, demulcent, depurative, emollient, refrigerant, urinary astringent and constipating effects. Bark is also useful in the diabetes, burning sensation,pruritis and in vaginopathy. The root of the plant is used as astringent. [18] Mamta farswan et al, (2008) have reported the hypoglycemic effect toFicus arnottiana Miq. Bark extract on Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. [22] Mamta farswan et al, have reported the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant activity of An isolated compound from Ficus arnottiana Miq [23] Gregory et al, (2009) have reported the antiulcer activity of Ficus arnottiana Miq. leaf extract. [24-26]  In spite of being one of the well-known medicinal plant used in Indian traditional medicine, there has been very little scientific data available pertaining to the pharmacological properties of Ficus arnottiana Miq.

 

About the Author 

Ashok Kumar*

Dept of Biotechnology, Himachal Institute of Life Sciences Rampurghat Road, Paonta

Sahib -173025, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA

*Corresponding Author’s Email: asokumr@gmail.com

 Address for Correspondences:

Dr. Ashok Kumar C/O Mr. G.K. Rathoure, MAYASHIVRAJ SADAN, Gupta Colony, Railway Ganj Hardoi-241001 (UP) INDIA, Email- asokumr@gmail.com

Phone- 05852-223447, Mob- +919450501471, +919548080680

 

References

1. Cambridge advanced learners’ dictionary, Cambridge university ,Herbsoct 2000,92-98.

2. SachdevYadav, Mayank Kulshreshtha, Mradul Goswami, Chandana V. Rao  Veena Sharma Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (01); 2011: 38-41

3. Nguyen, D.T., Orgill D.P., Murphy G.F. (2009). Chapter 4: The Pathophysiologic Basis for Wound Healing and Cutaneous Regeneration 124-128

 

4.Bele A A, Jadhav V M, Kadam V J; Wound healing activity of herbal formulation. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009; 2(3):344-348

5.Kumar B, Vinaykumar M, Govindarajan R, Pushpangadan P, Ethanopharmacological approaches to wound healing exploring medicinal plants of India, J.Ethanopharmacol., 114, 2007, 103-113.

6. Roberts PR, Black KW, Santamauo JT, Zaloga GP, Dietry peptides improve wound healing following surgery,Nutrition, 14, 1998, 266-269

 7. Dr. Tamara D. Fishman,2008,chapter12:book of pathophysiology basis for phases of wound healing234-245

8.Gaur RD, Bhatt KC, Tiwari JK, An ethanobotanical study of utter pradesh Himalaya in relation to veterinary medicines,journal of Indian botanical science.1992,72,139-144.micani.

9.Patil SB, Naikwade NS, Kondawar MS, Magdum CS, AwalelVB,Traditional uses of plants for wound healing in the sanglidistric,Maharashtra,International journal of pharm tech Research,1(3),2009,876-878.

10.Cambierc, ash J Fijian medicinal plants.csiro,Melbourne, Australia,1994:1-275.

11.Medicinal plants in the south oacific.edited and compiled by sotheeswarans,doylem,Aalbersberg, WHO reginol publications, western pacific series no-19, manila, Philippines,  journal of pharmacology,1998:3-231.

12. Agarwal SK, rastogi PR, Triterpenoids of hibiscus rosasinesis,Indian journal of pharmacy.1971:33:41-42.

13. Sundarrao K, burrows1,kuduk M, et al. Preliminary screening of antibacterial and antitumours activity of papua new Guinean native medicinal plants.Int.j.pharmacy.1993:31(1)3-6.

14. Spinoc, Dodierm, sotheeswarans. coumarins from calophyllum seed oil a renewable source of potent hiv reverse transcription inhibitors. Bio organic and medicinal chemistry letters, 1998 in press.

15. Weiner M A. secrets of Fijian medicines, 1984: 1-141.

16. Nayak BS, Sandiford S, Maxwell A, Evaluation of the wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of morindacitrifolia L.leaf,Ecam,6(3),2009,351-356.

17. Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K, Wound healing effect of various extracts of adhatodavasica,international journal of pharma and bio sciences,1(4),2010,530-536

18. Bakshi, D.N.G., Sharma, P. S., Pal, D.C., 2001. A Lexicon of Indian Medicinal Plants.Vol 2, Nayaprakashan, New Delhi, p. 190.

19.Warrier, P.K., Nambiar, V.P.K., Ramankutty, C., 1994. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species. Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, p. 423.

20. Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D., 1975. Indian Medicinal Plants, 2nd ed. Periodical Experts, New Delhi, p. 2333.

21. Chopra R.N., S.L. Nayer and I.C Chopra.Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plant. CSIR, New Delhi.1996, p.no-1092-1098

22. Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Mamta Farswan, V. Parcha  have reported the hypoglycemic effect of Ficus arnottiana Miq. bark extract on Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats,Natural Product Radiance.Vol.8(5) 2009, p 478-482

23. Papiya Mitra Mazumder, MamtaFarswan, V. Parcha and Vinod Singh.2008.Hypoglycemic And Antioxidant Activity Of An Isolated compound from Ficusarnottiana bark, Pharmacologyonline 3: p509-519.

24. Gregory M., Vithalrao K.P., Franklin, G., and Kalaichelavan, V., 2009. Antiulcer activity of Ficus arnottiana Miq. (Moraceae) leaf methanolic extracts. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 4, p89-93.

25.International journal of comprehensive pharmacy on wound healing activity of Murrayakoenigii leaf extract,Dinesh kumar patidar,Narendrayadav,Pradeep Sharmaonoct 2010,p.no15-20.

26. Research journal of pharmaceutical,biologicaland chemical sciences, Anithas,sureshG s.page no-25-30.

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