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Wound Healing and Ficus arnottiana Miq. – A Review: Ashok Kumar

26 Nov

Introduction

An herb is a plant that is valued for flavor, scent, medicinal, or other purposes. Herbs are mainly used for their medicinal purposes, because of their healing attributes some herbs have come to be known as medicinal herbs. The herbal products today symbolize safety in contrast to the synthetic that are regarded as unsafe to humans and environment. The herbal products have fewer side effects as compared to so they are wildly used for medicinal purposes [1]. India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products.Indian traditional medicines based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy[2]. Wound healing, or wound repair, is the critical physiological process by which the body repairs skin or organ tissue after injury.[3] A wound which is disrupted state of tissue caused by physical, chemical, microbial or immunological insult ultimately heal either by regeneration or fibroplasias. Wound healing is a complex process that results in the contraction and closure of the wound and restoration of functional barrier:

(1)    Cutaneous wound repair is accompanied by an ordered and definable sequence of biological events starting with wound closure and progressing to the repair and remodeling of damaged tissue.

(2)    Repair of injured tissues includes inflammation, proliferation, and migration of different cell types.

(3)    Inflammation, which constitutes a part of the acute response, result in a coordinated influx of neutrophils at the wound site.4]

 

Classification of Wound

 

Wounds are classified as open and closed wound on the underlying cause of wound creation and acute and chronic wounds on the basis of physiology of wound healing.

 1.      Open wounds:

In this case blood escapes the body and bleeding is clearly visible. It is further classified as: Incised wound, Laceration or tear wound, Abrasions or superficial wounds, Puncture wounds, Penetration wounds and gunshot wounds

2.      Closed wounds:

 In closed wounds blood escapes the circulatory system but remains in the body. It includes Contusion or bruises, hematomas or blood tumor, Crush injury etc[5].

3.      Acute wounds:

Acute wound is a tissue injury that normally proceeds through an orderly and timely reparative process that results in sustained restoration of anatomic and functional integrity. Acute wounds are usually caused by cuts or surgical incisions and complete the wound healing process within the expected time frame

4.      Chronic wounds:

Chronic wounds are wounds that have failed to progress through the normal stages of healing and therefore entera state of pathologic inflammation chronic wounds either require a prolonged time to heal or recur frequently. Local infection, hypoxia, trauma, foreign bodies and systemic problems such as diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, immunodeficiency or medications are the most frequent causes of chronic wounds [5, 6].

 

Process of Wound Healing

The healing process can be categorized into primary and secondary healing.  Primary healing, or first intention, is the least complex as it refers to the healing together of the edges of clean, closely opposed wound edges.  Secondary healing or second intention involves not only apposition of edges, but also the filling of a soft tissue defect as seen in traumatic, infection or disease induced wounds. Delayed primary closure or third intention is a combination of the first two.

 

Phases of Wound Healing

There are mainly 3 phases of wound healing there response to injury, either surgically or traumatically induced, is immediate and the damaged tissue or wound then passes through three phases in order to affect a final repair:

  1. The inflammatory phase
  2. The fibroplastic phase
  3. The remodelling phase

The inflammatory phase prepares the area for healing and immobilizes the wound by causing it to swell and become painful, so that movement becomes restricted. The fibro plastic phase rebuilds the structure, and then the remodeling phase provides the final form.

a.      Inflammatory phase

The inflammatory phase starts immediately after the injury that usually last between 24 and 48 hrs and may persist for up to 2 weeks in some cases The inflammatory phase launches the haemostatic mechanisms to immediately stop blood loss from the wound site. Clinically recognizable cardinal sign of inflammation, rubor, calor, tumor, dolor and function-laesa appear as the consequence. This phase is characterized by vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation to induce blood clotting and subsequently vasodilatation and phagocytosis to produce inflammation at the wound.

 b.      Fibroplastic phase

The second phase of wound healing is the fibroplastic phase that lasts upto 2 days to 3 weeks after the inflammatory phase. This phase comprises of three steps viz., granulation, contraction and epithelialisation. In the granulation step fibroblasts form a bed of collagen and new capillaries are produced. Fibroblast produces a variety of substances essential for wound repair including glycosaminoglycans and collagen. Under the step of contraction wound edges pull together to reduces the defects in the third step epithelial tissues are formed over the wound

c.       Remodeling phase

This phase last for 3 weeks to 2 years. New collagen is formed in this phase. Tissue tensile strength is increased due to intermolecular cross-linking of collagen via vitamin-C dependent hydroxylation. The scar flattens and scar tissues become 80% as strong as the original.

The wound healing activities of plants have since been explored in folklore. Many Ayurvedic herbal plants have a very important role in the process of wound healing. Plants are more potent healers because they promote the wound healing.[7]

 

Hemostasis

Inflammation (acutephase)

 Proliferation (Granulation and epthelization)

 Remodelling (Partly overlap and controlled by cytokines andgrowth factors)

 

Plants Having Wound Healing Activity

S. No.

Name of the plant

Family

Common name

Part Used

1.

Abies webbiana ind[9]

Pinaceae

Talisa

Leaves

2.

Clidemia hirada[10]

Melastomaceae

Kaurasiga

Leaves

3.

Epipremnum pinnatum[10]

Araceae

Naca

Bark

4.

Hibiscus rosasinesis[12]

Malvaceae

Senitoa

Leaves, Root

5.

Hoya australis[11]

Asclipidaceae

Wabilevu

Leaves

6.

Terminali acattapa[10]

Combretaceae

Tavola

Bark, Leaves

7.

Thespesia populnea[10]

Malvaceae

Mulomulo

Leaves, bark

8.

Vitex trifolia[13]

Verbnaceae

Bulokaka

Leaves

9.

Calophyllum inophyllum[14]

Clusiaceae

Dilo

Leaves, bark

10.

Centella asiatica[12]

Apiaceae

Totodro

Whole plant

11.

Adathoda vasicaNees[17]

Acanthaceac

Basak

Leaves

12.

Adiantum,lunulatum Burm[9]

Polypopdiaceae

Hansapdi

Leaves

13.

Mikani micrantha[8]

Asteraceae

Fuesaina

Leaves

14.

Psidium guajava[11]

Myretaceae

Tuava

Leaves

15.

Premna obtusifolia[12]

Verbenaceae

Yaro

leaves

16.

Morinda citrifolia[16]

Rubiaceae

Kura,nonu

Root

17.

Miscanthusfloridulus[9)

Poaceae

Gasau

Leaves

18.

Wollastoni abiflora[11]

Asteraceae

Makakula

Leaves

19.

Guettard aspeciosa[8]

Rubiaceae

Buabua

Bark

20.

Andropogonm uricantus Retz[9]

Graminae

Virana

Root

 

Ficus arnottiana Miq. (Moraceae)[18]

Plants of Ficus species are used extensively in various parts of the world against a wide range of ailments. The synergistic action of its metabolite production is most probably responsible for the beneficial effects of the plant. Ficus is a large genus of trees or shrubs, often climbers with milky juice, widely distributed throughout the tropics of both hemispheres, but particularly abundant in South-east Asia and Polynesia. About 65 species of Ficus occurs in India. The genus is remarkable for the large variation in the habitat of its species. It contains some of giants of the vegetable kingdom such as Banyan tree, Pipal tree and Indian rubbers and also small wiry climbers like Ficus pumila and Ficus scandens Roxbs. Traditionally, various parts of the Ficus species are used for medicinal purpose.

 

Classification of Ficus arnottiana Miq.

 Kingdom:        Plantae

Division:          Magnoliophyta

Phylum:           Tracheophyta

Class:               Magnoliopsida

Subclass:         Rosidae

Order:              Rosales

Family:            Moraceae

Genus:             FicusL.

Species:           arnottiana

Botanical name: Ficusarnottiana

Ficus  is also known as Paraspipal in Hindi,  as Parisah, Plaksha in Sanskrit, as Crown (Ceylon) in English and as Kallal in Malyali. It has synonym Urostigma arnottianum and trade name Paraspipal.

The tree grows abundantly throughout India, mostly in the rocky hills of the Deccan peninsula up to an elevation of about 1350 m. It is also wide spread in Sri Lanka. [19, 20] Paraspipal is a glabrous tree or shrub without aerial roots, reaching upto 20 m in height; leaves subcoriaceous 5-15 cm., broadly ovate, alternate, narrowed upwards to the shortly caudate-acuminate apex, with entire margins, base usually cordate; bark pale, smooth; petioles 5-15 cm; lamina simple approximately heart shaped with broadly ovate base and shortly caudate-acuminate apex; fruit achenes. [19, 20]

 

Ficus Arnottiana Miq., medicinal herb, wound healing herb, wound healing

Figure 1: Ficus arnottiana Miq.

 Ficus arnottiana Miq. grows wild in the forests of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand mainly on rocks.Ficus can also be grown from seed. Natural regeneration is done by seed. It grows on rocks, chiefly on dry rocks, inside shoals, sometimes grows on tress as an epiphyte wild. The fruit of the plant contain β- sitosterol, gluacol acetate, glucose and friedelin. [21]

Leaf of the plant has aphrodisiac activity while the bark of the plant have astringent, demulcent, depurative, emollient, refrigerant, urinary astringent and constipating effects. Bark is also useful in the diabetes, burning sensation,pruritis and in vaginopathy. The root of the plant is used as astringent. [18] Mamta farswan et al, (2008) have reported the hypoglycemic effect toFicus arnottiana Miq. Bark extract on Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. [22] Mamta farswan et al, have reported the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant activity of An isolated compound from Ficus arnottiana Miq [23] Gregory et al, (2009) have reported the antiulcer activity of Ficus arnottiana Miq. leaf extract. [24-26]  In spite of being one of the well-known medicinal plant used in Indian traditional medicine, there has been very little scientific data available pertaining to the pharmacological properties of Ficus arnottiana Miq.

 

About the Author 

Ashok Kumar*

Dept of Biotechnology, Himachal Institute of Life Sciences Rampurghat Road, Paonta

Sahib -173025, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA

*Corresponding Author’s Email: asokumr@gmail.com

 Address for Correspondences:

Dr. Ashok Kumar C/O Mr. G.K. Rathoure, MAYASHIVRAJ SADAN, Gupta Colony, Railway Ganj Hardoi-241001 (UP) INDIA, Email- asokumr@gmail.com

Phone- 05852-223447, Mob- +919450501471, +919548080680

 

References

1. Cambridge advanced learners’ dictionary, Cambridge university ,Herbsoct 2000,92-98.

2. SachdevYadav, Mayank Kulshreshtha, Mradul Goswami, Chandana V. Rao  Veena Sharma Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (01); 2011: 38-41

3. Nguyen, D.T., Orgill D.P., Murphy G.F. (2009). Chapter 4: The Pathophysiologic Basis for Wound Healing and Cutaneous Regeneration 124-128

 

4.Bele A A, Jadhav V M, Kadam V J; Wound healing activity of herbal formulation. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009; 2(3):344-348

5.Kumar B, Vinaykumar M, Govindarajan R, Pushpangadan P, Ethanopharmacological approaches to wound healing exploring medicinal plants of India, J.Ethanopharmacol., 114, 2007, 103-113.

6. Roberts PR, Black KW, Santamauo JT, Zaloga GP, Dietry peptides improve wound healing following surgery,Nutrition, 14, 1998, 266-269

 7. Dr. Tamara D. Fishman,2008,chapter12:book of pathophysiology basis for phases of wound healing234-245

8.Gaur RD, Bhatt KC, Tiwari JK, An ethanobotanical study of utter pradesh Himalaya in relation to veterinary medicines,journal of Indian botanical science.1992,72,139-144.micani.

9.Patil SB, Naikwade NS, Kondawar MS, Magdum CS, AwalelVB,Traditional uses of plants for wound healing in the sanglidistric,Maharashtra,International journal of pharm tech Research,1(3),2009,876-878.

10.Cambierc, ash J Fijian medicinal plants.csiro,Melbourne, Australia,1994:1-275.

11.Medicinal plants in the south oacific.edited and compiled by sotheeswarans,doylem,Aalbersberg, WHO reginol publications, western pacific series no-19, manila, Philippines,  journal of pharmacology,1998:3-231.

12. Agarwal SK, rastogi PR, Triterpenoids of hibiscus rosasinesis,Indian journal of pharmacy.1971:33:41-42.

13. Sundarrao K, burrows1,kuduk M, et al. Preliminary screening of antibacterial and antitumours activity of papua new Guinean native medicinal plants.Int.j.pharmacy.1993:31(1)3-6.

14. Spinoc, Dodierm, sotheeswarans. coumarins from calophyllum seed oil a renewable source of potent hiv reverse transcription inhibitors. Bio organic and medicinal chemistry letters, 1998 in press.

15. Weiner M A. secrets of Fijian medicines, 1984: 1-141.

16. Nayak BS, Sandiford S, Maxwell A, Evaluation of the wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of morindacitrifolia L.leaf,Ecam,6(3),2009,351-356.

17. Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K, Wound healing effect of various extracts of adhatodavasica,international journal of pharma and bio sciences,1(4),2010,530-536

18. Bakshi, D.N.G., Sharma, P. S., Pal, D.C., 2001. A Lexicon of Indian Medicinal Plants.Vol 2, Nayaprakashan, New Delhi, p. 190.

19.Warrier, P.K., Nambiar, V.P.K., Ramankutty, C., 1994. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species. Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, p. 423.

20. Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D., 1975. Indian Medicinal Plants, 2nd ed. Periodical Experts, New Delhi, p. 2333.

21. Chopra R.N., S.L. Nayer and I.C Chopra.Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plant. CSIR, New Delhi.1996, p.no-1092-1098

22. Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Mamta Farswan, V. Parcha  have reported the hypoglycemic effect of Ficus arnottiana Miq. bark extract on Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats,Natural Product Radiance.Vol.8(5) 2009, p 478-482

23. Papiya Mitra Mazumder, MamtaFarswan, V. Parcha and Vinod Singh.2008.Hypoglycemic And Antioxidant Activity Of An Isolated compound from Ficusarnottiana bark, Pharmacologyonline 3: p509-519.

24. Gregory M., Vithalrao K.P., Franklin, G., and Kalaichelavan, V., 2009. Antiulcer activity of Ficus arnottiana Miq. (Moraceae) leaf methanolic extracts. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 4, p89-93.

25.International journal of comprehensive pharmacy on wound healing activity of Murrayakoenigii leaf extract,Dinesh kumar patidar,Narendrayadav,Pradeep Sharmaonoct 2010,p.no15-20.

26. Research journal of pharmaceutical,biologicaland chemical sciences, Anithas,sureshG s.page no-25-30.

Management of Pscyhosomatic Diseases in software executive using Ayurveda

5 May

Date: 5th May 2011

Author: Dr. Santosh Chavan — B.A.M.S, M.D.(Ay. Medicine)

About: Dr. Santosh Chavan has studied at the National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur by Govt. of India and is an Associate professor in Dept. of Panchakarma Bharti Vidyapeeth. He is also pursuing Ph.D in Panchakarma. He is also on the panel consultant atthe Deenanath Mangeshkar Memorial hospital Ayurveda Department in Pune and is independently practicing in 2 places in Pune. Dr. Santosh Chavan has a website from WebsiteForDoctors

Contact: http://www.indiapanchakarma.com, dr_chavan@yahoo.com, +91 9822249807

Improving the quality of life of chronic heart failure patients : Role of ‘Sampurna Hridaya Shuddhikaran

29 Apr

Date: 29/04/2011

About the Authors:

Dr. ROHIT SANE

Director, Madhavbaug Cardiac Rehabilitation Center, Mumbai

Contact:. 09869080447, Mail ID: rohitmsane@gmail.com, http://www.drsanehealthcare.com/


DR.MILIND SUDHAKARRAO HANCHATE

MD (PSM),DHA,AFIH,

 Contact:  9920 670 320, Mail Id :  milind_hanchate@yahoo.co.in

Ayurvedic Orientation-I: SHAREER RACHANA (ANATOMY)

22 Mar

Our corporeal body is defined as Kaya, Shareer and Deha in Ayurveda.
It needs a special mention here that around twenty centuries B.C., the knowledge of anabolic and catabolic activities and their role in balancing health had come to the notice of ancient Indian physicians.   It is clear from the fact that, in different contexts, the physical body has been referred to in different terms such as Kaya, Shareer or Deha.   If we go deep into the etymological origin of these words, following facts come to our notice:

SR.NO.

WORD

ETYMOLOGICAL ORIGIN and ITS TRANSLATION

SUGGESTION

01.

Kaya

Chi / Chayane – Accumulating or multiplying continuously.

Anabolic activity

02.

Shareer

Shru / Himsane – getting destroyed or shedding out continuously.

Catabolic activity

03.

Deha

Dhi / Vardhane – growing or developing continuously (A sign of life)

Harmony in Anabolism and Catabolism

Our body is said to be made up of six parts “Shadanga” (Shad = 6, anga = parts).  They are:  Head, extremities and the middle part consisting of chest and abdomen.  While the head is the controller of all our activities and thinking, the middle part plays an important role in performing vital functions such as respiration, digestion, metabolism and excretion, the extremities are meant to perform physical activities and take part in locomotion.The smaller parts of our body are referred to as Pratyangas.

MEANING OF AYURVEDA

Etymologically, the word Ayurveda is made up of two basic terms viz., ‘Ayu’ and ‘Veda’ wherein ‘Ayu’ stands for life and ‘Veda’ means science or knowledge: thus Ayurveda means  `the science of life’.

To elaborate further, `Ayu’ not only means an alive body system but it is an active assembly of corporeal body (Shareer), Sensomotor organs (Indriyas), Mind (Mana) and Soul (Aatma).  Ayu or the life is supposed to originate right at the time of fertilization of ovum (Shonit) by the sperm (Shukra) during which time soul (Aatma) gets attached to it. The life ends when this omnipotent Aatma departs from it.   The life span of an average human being is said to be of around hundred years which depends on many extrinsic and intrinsic factors governing health (Swasthya).

Ayurveda looks not only into the physical aspect of life but it also goes deep into its humane aspect also.   That is why, while defining the life (Ayu), Acharya Charak, mentions that the science, in which the parameters which are beneficial (Hita), harmful (Ahita),  pleasurable (Sukh), or unpleasurable (Dukha) for life are described, is ‘Ayurveda’.The life therefore is a fleeting, mortal congregation of physical body, mind and soul, i.e. the physical as well as metaphysical components. The fusion of physically indistinct non-material components such as mind (Mana) and soul (Aatma), initiates the process of living.

It is postulated that as long as the components of soul and mind (Jeevatma) are intact, the biological forms of the material elements present in our body keep on functioning actively and keep us alive; but no sooner the Jeevatma departs, the biological materials start disintegrating.  This state is known as Mrityu (death). That is the reason; the life is re-defined as the fusion of physical body, senso-motor organs, mind and soul.
The physical part of body is a combination of biological components such as Doshas (Omnipresent vital catalysts), Dhatus (Tissues / humoral components);  Agnis (Chemicals / Bio-transformers)  and Malas (Waste components);  whereas the metaphysical part consists of mind, soul and subtle elemental factors (Tanmatras) which are naturally implanted in the sensory organs so as to provide us the faculties of hearing, touch, vision, taste and smell.   When all the above factors act in harmony, it is defined as Swasthya (health).  Contrariwise, a state of disharmony / chaos is known as Roga (disease).

Ayurveda says that the forces we see predominating the external world predominate our internal milieu also.    The living body is nothing but a mini universe in itself.   According to the established theories mentioned in philosophies the whole material world is made up of five basic elements.  viz. Aakash, Vayu, Teja, Apa and Prithvi, comparable with ethereal, gaseous, energy, fluid and earthern masses respectively which are material in nature and also, Aatma (Soul), Mana (Mind), Kala (Time) and Disha (Space) which are non-material.   While different permutations and combinations of these elements without any life-force lead to the formation of inanimate materials / minerals or metals, their congregation, coupled with the life-force give birth to the animate world, which could be of higher level. Animal Kingdom known as Bahirantash chetana. This is a lower level. Plant Kingdom is known as Antashchetana.
The biological components mentioned above, viz., Doshas (vital catalysts),  Dhatus (tissue / humoral components), Agnis (biochemical transformers) and Malas (waste materials) are nothing but the biological  forms of the five basic elements only.

During embryological development and further on, the Doshas and Dhatus get amalgamated in genetically coded proportions and form / constitute various physical organs such as heart, liver, stomach, etc.
The science of Ayurveda has also elaborated on certain special Sanskrit terms for different structures in the body.   These terms are self explanatory in themselves.   A brief review of the important ones is mentioned here under:

  • Doshas (Vital Catalysts)
    The Doshas (vital catalysts) are the most important constituents as they catalyse and/or carry out all vital functions in their normalcy, and initiate the disease process in states of disequilibrium / vitiation.
  • Dhatus (Tissue Components)
    Dhatus are the tissue-humoral systems of the body. They are always formed in a fixed sequence. In different permutations and combinations the Dhatus form various physical organs of the body according to the genetically coded informations.   They are seven in number.  Their comparison with modern terminology may be as follows: Rasa ( Plasma and Lymph); Rakta (Blood cells); Mamsa (Muscle tissue); Meda (Adipose tissue);  Asthi (Bone tissue); Majja (Marrow tissue); Shukra (Tissue and humoral components related to reproductive / anabolic functions)

PRATYANGA  (Smaller Parts)

These parts of body are located in the larger Angas (parts).  This list includes brain and all parts of cranium, stomach, back, umbilicus, nose, chin, bladder, neck, ears, eyes, eye-brow, temporal bone, axilla, breasts, testis, knees and fingers.   Pratyanga also includes Kalas (various membranes), and internal parts like liver, spleen, lung, caecum, heart,  bones, joints, Siras and Dhamanis.   Strotosas are also included in these Pratyangas.

AASHAYAS (Pouchy Structures )

According to Acharya Sushrut *  there are eight Aashayas (pouchy structures) in our body.   These Aashayas are hollow pouches, meant for storage of specific material and have a surrounding outer covering.    They are named as Vatashaya, Pittashaya, Shleshmashaya, Raktashaya, Aamashaya, Pakvashaya, Mutrashaya and in female the eighth Aashaya is Garbhashaya. (* Author of Sushrut Samhita – The magnum opus on the principle and practice of surgery with ENT and Ophthalmology written in 1000 B.C.)

Vatashaya may be compared to colon.Pittashaya may be compared to gall-bladder, which stores bile. Shleshmashaya may be compared to lungs.Raktashaya may be compared to organs like liver, spleen  and heart.Aamashaya is compared to stomach.In Pakvashaya, organs like large and small intestine are included.Mutrashaya is compared to Urinary bladder.Garbhashaya is compared to Uterus.

PRANADHISHTHANAS (Vital Organs)

These are the vital spots of the body where Prana (Life) resides. They are ten in number. They include Shankhapradesh ( tempora), three Marmas i.e. Hrudaya (heart), Shira (head) and Basti (bladder); Kantha (neck), Rakta (blood), Shukra (viatl fluid), Oja and Guda (anus and rectum). It is believed that injury to any of these organs or loss of blood and vital fluid leads to instant death.

UPADHATUS (Secondary products)

These are noted to be formed by seven Dhatus, mentioned earlier. They are formed as follows – Stanya (milk) and Aartav (menstrual blood flow) are formed by Rasa DhatuKandara (tendons) and Sira (blood vessels) are formed by Rakta DhatuVasa (fat) and Twak (skin) are formed by Mamsa DhatuSnayu (Ligaments) and Sandhi (joints) are formed by Meda DhatuDanta (teeth) are formed by AsthiDhatuKesha (Hair) are formed by Majja DhatuOja is formed by Shukra Dhatu.

TWACHA (Skin and Underlying Facia )

Twacha is Upadhatu of Mamsa Dhatu, which is formed during fertilization process itself. It is made up of seven layers. They are: 1) Avabhasini; 2) Lohita; 3) Shweta; 4) Tamra; 5) Vedini; 6) Rohini 7) Mamsadhara

PESHIS (Muscular Structures)

The Muscular structures of body carry veins, arteries and nerves in them.    There are five hundred Peshis  in our body, out of which four hundred Peshis are in upper and lower extremities,  sixty six  Peshis are in middle part of the body and  thirty four Peshis are  in head and neck.
It would be very difficult for us to compare the number and types of muscle tissues mentioned in Ayurveda with that of the description we get today in the books of modern anatomy.

KANDARA (Tendons)

These are tendons of the body, which are responsible for movements like extension, contraction etc. They are sixteen in number out of which eight are in extremities, four in the neck and remaining four in the back. The tendons of extremities cover the region of thighs and shoulders and get extended till the roots of the toes and fingers.  The tendons of neck cover the chest and reach upto the head on one side and to the joints on the other side. The tendons of back extend to the ball joints of the shoulders above and the buttocks below.

SNAYU (Ligaments)

These may be compared with ligament and bursae, which connect the joints and muscles together.  These Snayus are of four types Sushir (porous), Pruthal (broad), Pratanvarti  (stretched) and Vrutta (circular). Aamashaya, Pakvashaya have Sushir Snayus. Chest, back and brain have Pruthal  Snayus. Legs and hands have Pratanvarti and Vrutta Snayus.
There are nine hundred Snayus in our body, out of which six hundred are situated in the extremities, two hundred and thirty three in the trunk region and seventy in the neck region.

DHAMANI (Arteries)

There are different opinions about Siras and Dhamanis. It is considered that origin of both Siras and Dhamanis is from Umbilicus. There are twenty four Dhamanis in the human body. According to Sushrut, Dhamanis are different from Siras by virtue of continuous pulsatory  movement (Sanskrit : Dhmanath Dhamani ).   Some Dhamanis may also be compared with cerebro-Spinal nerves. According to another opinion, Dhamanis carry Rasa (lymph) and blood within it.

SIRA (Veins)

Siras are those vessels which tend to take Doshas (impurities) along with them. The movement of Doshas in them is like a smooth flow (Sanskrit : Saranath Sira). There are seven hundred Siras in the body and which  can be compared to blood vessels or lymph vessels.

SROTAS (Channels)

Channels of circulation or tracts within the body are called Srotas. They are named so because of their tendency of trickling or oozing (Sru : `to flow’) of secretions through them.   They are the pathways (Ayana) for the nutrient products; waste-products and Doshas during the process of metabolism.   Srotas enable their products to reach their destination (viz. assimilation of nutrient substances by different parts of the body, or elimination of waste products from the body). They transport the Dhatus which are undergoing transformation.  They are physical structures (murti-mantah), and specific in their functions.  While the basic sites of Srotas with different functions are fixed depending on the biological material they are carrying, their openings are innumerable.  The Srotas can be compared with the unicellular end structures like capillaries or alveoli of lungs.

The vitiation of any of these Srotas (channels) is caused by exaggeration or inhibition of normal functions; occurrence of tumours in different sites and the shifting of the effected components to different areas of operation, manifested in the form of metabolic disorders.

Date: 22nd March 2011

Author: Dr. Mahesh Sharma —M.D.(Ay. Medicine)

About: Dr.Mahesh Sharma is an expert of Ayurveda by profession. He is a practicing as a consulting Ayurvedic physician since 1977. Having practiced as a general practitioner for a short stint of 3 years, he opted to be a specialist and hence, pursued specialization in “Internal Medicine” and completed M.D. in the year 1983 from Osmania University. Besides his own consultancy clinic, he was invited on board by different institutes/organizations to render his services. Dr. Mahesh Sharma has a website from WebsiteForDoctors

Contact: http://ayursharma.com

An Indigenous Management Of Cancer

28 Jan

Introduction-

The  term ‘CANCER’ derives from the latin word cancer and the Greek word Karkinus’ both meaning crab. There is a worldwide increase in the incidence of cancer,9%of all deaths in the developing countries are attributed to various types of cancers and it is the second leading cause of death after cardio vascular disease. Whereas in the developing countries it is the fourth leading cause of mortality. The studies conducted in various parts of the country show high incidence of gastro-intestinal and respiratory system in males whereas cancer of cervix and breast in females.

In Ayurvedic Classics, Acharya Shushruta has described similar observations and symptomatology but under different nomenclature like Arbuda ’Granthi’ AsadhyaVrana’Gluma etc. Whereas Acharya Vagbhata has not given any other definition than this. On the other hand has described it as Arbuda and Granthi are the same

The aim of this research paper is therefore on one hand to identify and classify such diseases which are described in Ayurveda and may be considered as cancer. On the other hand efforts are also been needed to explore the use of certain Ayurvedic Concepts modalities of treatment and to find out drugs which could be effective and non-toxic to other normal cells of the body.

 

Concept of managment-

According to Ayurveda it can be classified as follows-

A)Systemic

B)Local

 

A)Systemic management-

i)Samshodhan Chikitsa

ii)Shamana Chikitsa

iii)Rasayana Chikitsa

 

I)Samshodhana Chikitsa may be divided into three groups like i)medical

ii)Paramedical

iii)Surgical

 

II)Shaman Chikitsa- means to achieve the level of Dosha samyvastha(equilibrium).Alep(applying paste),Parishek(Shower of medicated decoction), Abyangam(Oil massage), Sweda(fomentation),Pachan(the therapy which digest uncooked foodstuff),Deepana(carminative)

III)Rasayana Chikitsa(Rejuvenative)-Restoration and preservation of the strength of the body by acting at the level of Digestion and metabolism, increasing the nutritional quality of Rasa  dhatu(Nutritive plasma)

Ayurvedic poorva karma i.e Snehan (internal oleation) proven helpful especially in curing hazards like nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, anaemia, discolouration of skin, falling of hairs, followed by high incidence of mortality e.g. Triphala ghrita is helpful in this regard before starting chemotherapy.(Ayurvedic management of cancer by Dr. B.L.Prasad 1986, IMS,BHU,Varanasi)

The use of Chandanbalalakshadi tail for external oleation (oil massage) and for internal oleation Padamakadi Ghrita are proven to be helpful  for the side effects of Radiation(Dr.Kulkarni at al,Ahwasana-II by B.S.D.T’s Cancer Research centre, Wagholi).

Thus poorva karma are helpful not only prolonging the span of life of cancer patients rather at the same time it is more effective in minimizing various hazards of anticancer treatment modalities by stimulating the self defense mechanism. The Rasayana drug(Rejuvenated) which may helpful

1.Amrita Bhallataka

2.Brahma Rasayana

Powder Form-Narsingh Choorna

Herbo-minearl preparation-

1.Shiva Gutika

2. Vasantakusumakara Rasa

Agni Karma-(Thermotherapy)

Use of Agnikarma has been greatly emphasized as an ideal method of treatment of Arbuda, Gulma, Speenomegaly, Hepatomegaly. In macro method,metallic or non metallic substances are heated up to fixed temperature and applied over the disease or skin in different figures and shapes.

Arbuda which do not respond to medical treatment the parasurgical technology is recommended. Agni karma and Kshar Karma are advised following surgery for complete eradication of dosha Bloodletting-is also advised in some types of Arbudai.e.Medija Arbuda

 

Surgical treatment-Granthi and Arbuda if do not resolve by proper medical treatment should be subjected to surgical excision. In excision of Arbuda, Acharya Sushruta  has described that metallic tourniquet should be applied around tha base of Arbuda and followed by excision ,Agni Karma and Kshar Karma according to the depth of the root.

Classical medicament by C.C.R.A.S.1986 Ayurvedic management of cancer

Sanskrit name Lattin name Parts used
Yashtimadhu Glycerazhia glabra roots
Guduchi Tinospora cordifolia stem
Bhallataka Semicarpus anacardium Semicarp,seeds
Rohitaka Amoora Rohitaka bark

Single herb by Lalites and Mohan Kumar(1980)

 

Sitaphala Annora squmosa Ripe fruit
Kanchar Bauhinia variegata Bark
Chakramarda Cassia tora seeds
Lajjalu Mimosa pudia Whole plant
Karveera Nerium indicum root
Kustha Sassurea lappa root
Haritaki Terminalia chebula fruit
Sadpushpi Vinca rosea leaves
Arishta Xanthium strumarium root

 

Chemical agents (Ras Bhasma) commonly used in cancer by Lalites and Mohan Kumar 1980

Name of the preparation Constituents Comments
Arbudahara Rasa Mercury and sulphur macerated with the decoction of betal leaves, Cows urine Mentioned in all types of cancer
Loknatha Rasa Mercury, sulphur, mica, Aloe, iron oxide, ground with Solanum nigrum Mentioned in Liver, Spleen. GIT  types of cancer
Suvarna Gold dust Used in lymph node enlargement
Tamra Bhasma Colloidal powder Mentioned in all types of cancer
Abharaka Bhasma Mica Mentioned in all types of cancer
Manashila Arsenic sulphide External application of tumour

 

Etiopathogenesis of cancer

As per the concept of present study the diseases can be collaborated under three categories as mentioned earlier namely as

  1. Resembles clear malignancy
  2. Diseases may be considered as malignant
  3. Disease where possibility of malignancy can be ruled out

The concept of classification the involvement of doshic factor is also answerable whether cancer Vatic, Paittic, Shleshmic, Tridoshaja. As the high mitotic activity and pain are suggestive of Vatic predominance property, voluminous growth factor is suggestive of shleshmic property whilst enzymatic interaction indicates Paittic property.

While going through the literature it has been observed that great emphasis been given towards the rolr of Ahar and Vihar as one of the etiological factors for various disease. Even in modern era, importance of dietary habits and  environmental factors are given one the main etiological factors for precipitation of of cancer. These are some examples of epidemiological survey conducted by some scientists.

  1. There are certain types of diets which modify intestinal flora by the presence large numbers of anaerobic bacteria producing carcinogen by dehydrogenating bile salts (Ariss et al,1969)
  2. The eating of smoked fish and rice play an important role in the development of carcinoma of stomach(Haeszel et al 1972)
  3. Low residual diet and high protein diet are considered to be primary cause of large bowel carcinoma. similarly cigarette smoking may lead to carcinoma of bronchus.(Basu et al 1976)
  4. The increasing use of pesticides and organize urea leads to precipitation of cancer.(Chinese report)
  5. Contaminated drinking water by industrial worker also greater risks of hepatic carcinoma(Jolly,1973)
  6. Use of betel leaves with lime,tobacco or excessive use of Khaini or Bidi precipitates oral cancer (R Doll1977)

 

Acharaya Sushruta has given emphasis on the pathogenesis of the disease under the different nomenclature of SHATAKRIYAKALA. Viz. six different stages of etiopathogenesis

 

Pathological stage Etiopathogenesis of Doshas
Sanchaya The process of carcinogenesis start nearly 10-15 ys earlier.Predominantly Kapha prakriti showing genetic alteration.Carcinogen start stimulating the cells at gene level.
Prakopa Carcinogen  interacts with the cell and start vitiating particular dosha in the body.
Prasara Leads to mutagenic changes and releases its vitiated chemical and enzymatic factors in the body system
Sthasamshraya Promoting agents acts on such dormant cells and alter them at particular site resulting into development od cancer
Vyakti Obstruction or vition of dosha at particular site due to particular cell receptor
Bheda Affects the particular Dhatu


Date: 28th January 2011

Author: Dr. Santosh Chavan — B.A.M.S, M.D.(Ay. Medicine)

About: Dr. Santosh Chavan has studied at the  National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur by Govt. of India and is an  Associate professor in Dept. of Panchakarma Bharti Vidyapeeth. He is also pursuing Ph.D in Panchakarma. He is also on the  panel consultant atthe  Deenanath Mangeshkar Memorial hospital Ayurveda Department in Pune and is independently practicing in 2 places in Pune. Dr. Santosh Chavan has a website from WebsiteForDoctors

Contact: http://www.indiapanchakarma.com,

dr_chavan@yahoo.com

+91 9822249807

 

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