The term ‘CANCER’ derives from the latin word cancer and the Greek word Karkinus’ both meaning crab. There is a worldwide increase in the incidence of cancer,9%of all deaths in the developing countries are attributed to various types of cancers and it is the second leading cause of death after cardio vascular disease. Whereas in the developing countries it is the fourth leading cause of mortality. The studies conducted in various parts of the country show high incidence of gastro-intestinal and respiratory system in males whereas cancer of cervix and breast in females.
In Ayurvedic Classics, Acharya Shushruta has described similar observations and symptomatology but under different nomenclature like Arbuda ’Granthi’ AsadhyaVrana’Gluma etc. Whereas Acharya Vagbhata has not given any other definition than this. On the other hand has described it as Arbuda and Granthi are the same
The aim of this research paper is therefore on one hand to identify and classify such diseases which are described in Ayurveda and may be considered as cancer. On the other hand efforts are also been needed to explore the use of certain Ayurvedic Concepts modalities of treatment and to find out drugs which could be effective and non-toxic to other normal cells of the body.
Concept of managment-
According to Ayurveda it can be classified as follows-
I)Samshodhana Chikitsa may be divided into three groups like i)medical
II)Shaman Chikitsa- means to achieve the level of Dosha samyvastha(equilibrium).Alep(applying paste),Parishek(Shower of medicated decoction), Abyangam(Oil massage), Sweda(fomentation),Pachan(the therapy which digest uncooked foodstuff),Deepana(carminative)
III)Rasayana Chikitsa(Rejuvenative)-Restoration and preservation of the strength of the body by acting at the level of Digestion and metabolism, increasing the nutritional quality of Rasa dhatu(Nutritive plasma)
Ayurvedic poorva karma i.e Snehan (internal oleation) proven helpful especially in curing hazards like nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, anaemia, discolouration of skin, falling of hairs, followed by high incidence of mortality e.g. Triphala ghrita is helpful in this regard before starting chemotherapy.(Ayurvedic management of cancer by Dr. B.L.Prasad 1986, IMS,BHU,Varanasi)
The use of Chandanbalalakshadi tail for external oleation (oil massage) and for internal oleation Padamakadi Ghrita are proven to be helpful for the side effects of Radiation(Dr.Kulkarni at al,Ahwasana-II by B.S.D.T’s Cancer Research centre, Wagholi).
Thus poorva karma are helpful not only prolonging the span of life of cancer patients rather at the same time it is more effective in minimizing various hazards of anticancer treatment modalities by stimulating the self defense mechanism. The Rasayana drug(Rejuvenated) which may helpful
Powder Form-Narsingh Choorna
2. Vasantakusumakara Rasa
Use of Agnikarma has been greatly emphasized as an ideal method of treatment of Arbuda, Gulma, Speenomegaly, Hepatomegaly. In macro method,metallic or non metallic substances are heated up to fixed temperature and applied over the disease or skin in different figures and shapes.
Arbuda which do not respond to medical treatment the parasurgical technology is recommended. Agni karma and Kshar Karma are advised following surgery for complete eradication of dosha Bloodletting-is also advised in some types of Arbudai.e.Medija Arbuda
Surgical treatment-Granthi and Arbuda if do not resolve by proper medical treatment should be subjected to surgical excision. In excision of Arbuda, Acharya Sushruta has described that metallic tourniquet should be applied around tha base of Arbuda and followed by excision ,Agni Karma and Kshar Karma according to the depth of the root.
Classical medicament by C.C.R.A.S.1986 Ayurvedic management of cancer
|Sanskrit name||Lattin name||Parts used|
Single herb by Lalites and Mohan Kumar(1980)
|Sitaphala||Annora squmosa||Ripe fruit|
|Lajjalu||Mimosa pudia||Whole plant|
Chemical agents (Ras Bhasma) commonly used in cancer by Lalites and Mohan Kumar 1980
|Name of the preparation||Constituents||Comments|
|Arbudahara Rasa||Mercury and sulphur macerated with the decoction of betal leaves, Cows urine||Mentioned in all types of cancer|
|Loknatha Rasa||Mercury, sulphur, mica, Aloe, iron oxide, ground with Solanum nigrum||Mentioned in Liver, Spleen. GIT types of cancer|
|Suvarna||Gold dust||Used in lymph node enlargement|
|Tamra Bhasma||Colloidal powder||Mentioned in all types of cancer|
|Abharaka Bhasma||Mica||Mentioned in all types of cancer|
|Manashila||Arsenic sulphide||External application of tumour|
Etiopathogenesis of cancer
As per the concept of present study the diseases can be collaborated under three categories as mentioned earlier namely as
- Resembles clear malignancy
- Diseases may be considered as malignant
- Disease where possibility of malignancy can be ruled out
The concept of classification the involvement of doshic factor is also answerable whether cancer Vatic, Paittic, Shleshmic, Tridoshaja. As the high mitotic activity and pain are suggestive of Vatic predominance property, voluminous growth factor is suggestive of shleshmic property whilst enzymatic interaction indicates Paittic property.
While going through the literature it has been observed that great emphasis been given towards the rolr of Ahar and Vihar as one of the etiological factors for various disease. Even in modern era, importance of dietary habits and environmental factors are given one the main etiological factors for precipitation of of cancer. These are some examples of epidemiological survey conducted by some scientists.
- There are certain types of diets which modify intestinal flora by the presence large numbers of anaerobic bacteria producing carcinogen by dehydrogenating bile salts (Ariss et al,1969)
- The eating of smoked fish and rice play an important role in the development of carcinoma of stomach(Haeszel et al 1972)
- Low residual diet and high protein diet are considered to be primary cause of large bowel carcinoma. similarly cigarette smoking may lead to carcinoma of bronchus.(Basu et al 1976)
- The increasing use of pesticides and organize urea leads to precipitation of cancer.(Chinese report)
- Contaminated drinking water by industrial worker also greater risks of hepatic carcinoma(Jolly,1973)
- Use of betel leaves with lime,tobacco or excessive use of Khaini or Bidi precipitates oral cancer (R Doll1977)
Acharaya Sushruta has given emphasis on the pathogenesis of the disease under the different nomenclature of SHATAKRIYAKALA. Viz. six different stages of etiopathogenesis
|Pathological stage||Etiopathogenesis of Doshas|
|Sanchaya||The process of carcinogenesis start nearly 10-15 ys earlier.Predominantly Kapha prakriti showing genetic alteration.Carcinogen start stimulating the cells at gene level.|
|Prakopa||Carcinogen interacts with the cell and start vitiating particular dosha in the body.|
|Prasara||Leads to mutagenic changes and releases its vitiated chemical and enzymatic factors in the body system|
|Sthasamshraya||Promoting agents acts on such dormant cells and alter them at particular site resulting into development od cancer|
|Vyakti||Obstruction or vition of dosha at particular site due to particular cell receptor|
|Bheda||Affects the particular Dhatu|
Date: 28th January 2011
Author: Dr. Santosh Chavan — B.A.M.S, M.D.(Ay. Medicine)
About: Dr. Santosh Chavan has studied at the National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur by Govt. of India and is an Associate professor in Dept. of Panchakarma Bharti Vidyapeeth. He is also pursuing Ph.D in Panchakarma. He is also on the panel consultant atthe Deenanath Mangeshkar Memorial hospital Ayurveda Department in Pune and is independently practicing in 2 places in Pune. Dr. Santosh Chavan has a website from WebsiteForDoctors