Wound Healing and Ficus hispida Linn. – Overview

30 Sep

INTRODUCTION

Plants have been the major source of drugs in Indian system of medicine and other ancient systems in the world. Earliest description of curative properties of medicinal plants is found in Rig-Veda, Charaka Samhita and Sushrusha Samhita give extensive description on various medicinal herbs. Information on medicinal plants in India has been systematically organized. India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine.The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products.Indian traditional medicines based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy[1].

Wound healing:                                                                                                   

Healing is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. Healing incorporates both the removal of necrotic tissue (demolition), and the replacement of this tissue.

Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that results in the restoration of disrupted anatomical continuity and disturbed functional status of the skin [2] accomplished by several processes which involve fibro genesis, neo-vascularization, wound contraction and epithelization [3] .The basic principle of optimal wound healing is to minimize tissue damage and provide adequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation, proper nutrition and moist wound healing environment to restore the [4].

Herbal medicines have been the basis of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. One of the surveys conducted by the WHO reports that more than 80% of the world’s population still depends upon the traditional medicines for various diseases. In the developed countries 25 percent of the chronic wounds may even lead to multiple organ failure of death of the patients. Wounds are the physical injuries that result in an opening or breaking of the skin and appropriate method for healing of wounds is essential for the restoration of disrupted anatomical continuity and disturbed functional status of the skin [5-6].

 

 

CLASSIFICATION OF WOUND

Wounds are classified as open and closed wound on the underlying cause of wound creation and acute and chronic wounds on the basis of physiology of wound healing.

Open wounds:

In this case blood escapes the body and bleeding is clearly visible. It is further classified as: Incised wound, Laceration or tear wound, Abrasions or superficial wounds, Puncture wounds, Penetration wounds and gunshot wounds [7].

Closed wounds:

In closed wounds blood escapes the circulatory system but remains in the body. It includes Contusion or bruises, heamatomas or blood tumor, Crush injury etc.

Acute wounds:

Acute wound is a tissue injury that normally precedes through an orderly and timely reparative process that results in sustained restoration of anatomic and functional integrity. Acute wounds are usually caused by cuts or surgical incisions and complete the wound healing process within the expected time frame [8].

Chronic wounds:

Chronic wounds are wounds that have failed to progress through the normal stages of healing and therefore entera state of pathologic inflammation chronic wounds either require a prolonged time to heal or recur frequently. Local infection, hypoxia, trauma, foreign bodies and systemic problems such as diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, immunodeficiency or medications are the most frequent causes of chronic wounds [8, 9].

PHASES OF WOUND HEALING:

The Inflammatory phase:

The inflammatory phase starts immediately after the injury that usually last between 24 and 48 hrs and may persist for up to 2 weeks in some cases the inflammatory phase launches the haemostatic mechanisms to immediately stop blood loss from the wound site. Clinically recognizable cardinal sign of inflammation, rubor, calor, tumor, dolor and function-laesa appear as the consequence. This phase is characterized by vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation to induce blood clotting and subsequently vasodilatation and phagocytosis to produce inflammation at the wound site [10].

Fibroblastic phase:

The second phase of wound healing is the fibroplastic phase that lasts upto 2 days to 3 weeks after the inflammatory phase. This phase comprises of three steps viz., granulation, contraction and epithelialisation. In the granulation step fibroblasts form a bed of collagen and new capillaries are produced. Fibroblast produces a variety of substances essential for wound repair including glycosaminoglycans and collagen. Under the step of contraction wound edges pull together to reduces the defects in the third step epithelial tissues are formed over the wound site [11].

Epithelization phase:

 Epithelial cell migration is one of the vital processes of wound healing. The stem cells of epithelium must detach from the edges of the wound and migrate into wound. Normally dermal basal cells adhere to each other and to the underline basal layer of the dermis. Following mobilization, epithelial cells begin to enlarge and migrate down and across the wound. Transected hair follicles also contribute to the number of migrating epithelial cells. Epithelial cell migrating across wound usually move along the basal lamina or fibrin deposits, this phenomenon is called contact guidance and is an important factor in epithelial migration. Epithelial migration is followed by increased mytosis of epithelium. Recent evidence suggests that a water soluble heatlabile substance called chalone which is secreted at the wound site is responsible for regulation for mytosis. [12]

 

Prolifrative phase:

Proliferative Phase (2 days to 3 weeks) includes: Granulation stage: Fibroblasts lay bed of collagenFills defect and produces new capillariesContraction stage: Wound edges pull together to reduce defect. Epithelialization stage: Crosses moist surface cell travel about 3 cm from point of origin in all directions [13].

CONTRACTION PHASE:

Wound contraction is caused by the action of differentiated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) in the granulation tissue, which contain filaments of smooth muscle actin. Contraction of these fibroblasts makes the wound margins move toward the center of the wound.[14,15] Wound contraction started sooner in ponies than in horses and it was significantly more pronounced in ponies .Additionally, it was significantly more pronounced in body wounds compared with the limb wounds. As a result, second intention wound healing was significantly faster in ponies

than in horses, and significantly faster in body wounds than in metatarsal wounds.[16] Histology showed that myofi-broblasts were more organized in the wounds of the ponies: the myofibroblasts in the newly formed granulation tissue were transformed into a regularly organized pattern within 2 weeks, in which the cells were orientated perpendicular to the vessels and parallel to the wound surface. This appears to be a more favorable condition for wound contraction to occur. In the horses, myofibroblast organization took much longer. No differences were found in the number of fibroblasts, the amounts of smooth muscle actin and collagen.[17] Further research was performed to investigate whether the differences in wound contraction between horses and ponies were caused by differences in the inherent contraction capacity of fibroblasts or the local environment of the fibroblasts. It was found that no differences existed in the inherent contraction capacity of fibroblasts from ponies and horses in vitro.[18] However, the level of Transforming Growth Factor , the most important instigator of wound contraction, was significantly higher in the granulation tissue of pony wounds compared with horse wounds.

 

Remodeling phase:

This phase last for 3 weeks to 2 years. New collagen is formed in this phase. Tissue tensile strength is increased due to intermolecular cross-linking of collagen via vitamin-C dependent hydroxylation. The scar flattens and scar tissues become 80% as strong as the original [19, 20].

The wound healing activities of plants have since been explored in folklore. Many Ayurvedic herbal plants have a very important role in the process of wound healing. Plants are more potent healers because they promote the repair mechanisms in the natural way. Extensive research has been carried out in the area of wound healing management through medicinal plants. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement and providing a moist environment to encourage the establishment of the suitable environment for natural healing process [21].

 

HERBAL PLANTS FOR WOUND HEALING:

 

 

S.No

 

Plant Name

 

Family Plant part used Reference
1

 

Agave cantala Roxb. Agavaceaae LF 22
2

 

Annona squamosa L Annonaceae LF 23
3  Aporusa lindleyana

 

Euphorbiaceae LF 24
4  Bidens biternata

 

Asteraceae LF 25
5  Blumea lacera

 

Asteraceae LF 22

 

6 Calycopterisfloribunda. Combretaceae

 

LF 26
7  Chloroxylon swietenia

 

Rutaceae LF 27
8 Colebrookeaoppositifolia

 

Lamiaceae LF 22
9  Ficus racemosa L.

 

Moraceae BK,  LF &

FR

28
10 Piper betel L. Piperacea LF 29

 

11 Acacia catechu Mimosaceae BK 30

 

12 Ficus bengalensis L., Moraceae LF 31

 

13 Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae LF 30

 

14 Ficus religiosa L. Moraceae BK 31

 

 

LF- Leaf, BK- Bark and FR- Fruit

 

REVIEW OF LITRATURE:

Plant Name                      Ficus hispidaLinn.

Kingdom                          Plantae

Division Magnoliopsida
Class Magnoliopsida
Subclass  Dilleniidae
Order Rosales
Family Moraceae
Genus Ficus
Spcies hispida

Botanicalname              Ficus hispida Linn.

 

 

Vernacular names

Hindi –             Global, Kasha, Kala Umbar, Katgularia & Phalgu.

Sanskrit-          Kakodumbarika, Malayuhu, Phalgu & Phanika.

Gujarati-        Umbar English

Malayalam –    Kaattaththi, Paarakam

                                    

ficus hispida

Photograph of the Ficus hispida Linn.

PLANT DESCRIPTION:  A moderate sized tree grows up to 5 meters in height. Leaves opposite, long, with scrubby surfaces, pubescent; receptacles fascicled in the stem, obovoid, hispid, and green turns yellow when ripe.

Distribution: Throughout India growing wild in evergreen forests and waste lands.
Traditional Uses: According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leukoderma, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, ulcers and leprosy. [32]

Chemical constituents: Oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol, triterpenoids, flavonoids,

Pharmacological Uses[33-38]:

  • Ghosh R et al., Hypoglycemic activity of ficus hispida (bark) in normal and diabetic albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2004; 36: 222-225.
  • Shanmugarajan TS, et al., Cardioprotective effect of ficus hispida linn: On cyclophosphamide provoked oxidative myocardial injury in a rat model. Int J Pharmacol 2008; 1:1-10.
  • Sivaraman D et al., Sedative and anticonvulsant activities of the methanol leaf extract of ficus hispida linn. Drug Invent Today 2009; 1: 23-27.
  • Huong VN et al., A strong anticancer agent isolated from the leaves of Ficus hispida L. Tap Chi Hoa Hoc 2006; 44: 345-9.
  • Vishnoi SP et al., Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts of Ficus hispida. Indian J Nat Prod 2004; 20: 27-9.
  • Mandal SC et al., Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of ficus hispida. Leaf extract in rats. Fitoterapia 2002; 73: 663-667.

 

REFERENCES

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3.          Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR, The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery, Environ Health Pers, 109 (Suppl 1), 2001, 69-75.
4.          Priya KS, Gnanamani A, Radhakrishnan N, Babu, Healing potential of Datura alba on burn wounds in albino rats, J. Ethnopharmacol., 83, 2002, 193-199.
5.          Steenkamp V, Mathivha E, Gouws MC, Rensburg CEJ, Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Afr. J. Ethnopharmacol., 95, 2004, 353–357.
6.          Principe P, Monetising the pharmacological benefits of  plants. US Environmental protection Agency,Washington, D.C. 2005, 1991
7.          Strodtbeck F, Physiology of wound healing, Newborn InfantNurs. Rev, 1, 2001, 43-45.
8.          Kumar B, Vinaykumar M, Govindarajan R, Pushpangadan P, Ethanopharmacological approaches to wound healingexploring medicinal plants of India, J.Ethanopharmacol., 114, 2007, 103-113.
 9.          Roberts PR, Black KW, Santamauo JT, Zaloga GP, Dietry peptides improve wound healing following surgery,Nutrition, 14, 1998, 266-269
10.      Li J, Chen J, Kirsener R, Pathophysiology of acute wound healing, Clin. Dermatol., 25,   2007, 9-18
11.      Stadelmalmann WK, Digenis AG, Tobin GR, Physiology and healing dynamics of chronic cutaneous wounds, Am. J.Surg. 176, 1998, 26S-38S
12.      Dr. Tamara et al. 2008, 12 book of pathophysiology basis for phase of wound healing.
13.      Romanian Biotechnological Letters  Copyright © 2008 Bucharest University. . Romanian Society of Biological Sciences Vol. 14, No. 4, 2009, pp. 4597-4605 Printed in Romania. All rights reserved.
14.       Clark RAF: Biology of dermal repair. Dermatol Clin 11:647-666, 1993
15.      Darby I, Skalli O, Gabbiani G: _-Smooth muscle actin is transiently expressed by myofibroblasts   during experimental wound healing. Lab Invest 63:21-29, 1990
16.      Jacobs KA, Leach DH, Fretz PB, et al: Comparative aspects of the healing of excisional wounds on the leg and body of horses. Vet Surg 13:83-90, 198
17.      Wilmink JM, van Weeren PR, Stolk PWT, et al: Differences in second intention wound healing between horses and ponies: Histological aspects. Equine Vet J 31:61-67, 1999
18.       Wilmink JM, Nederbragt H, van Weeren PR, et al: Differences in wound contraction between horses and ponies: the in vitro contraction capacity of fibroblasts. Equine Vet J 33:499-505, 2001
19.      Madden JW, Peacock EE, Studies on the biology of collagen during wound healing. I. Rate of collagen synthesis and deposition in cutaneous wounds of the rat, Surgery, 64, 1968, 288-294.
20.      Prockop DJ, Kivirikko KI, Tuderman L, Guzman NA, The biosynthesis of collagen and its disorders, N.Engl. J. Med.,301, 1979, 13-23.
21.      Purna SK, Babu M, Collagen based dressings/a review.  Burns 26, 2000, 54-62.
22.      Upadhyaya, O.P et al. (1998). Skin treatments of Bihar plants. Pharmaceutical Biology 36, 20–24
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economic plants of Narayana Patna Hills of Koraput Dist., Orissa. Journal
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30.      Patil SB, Naikwade NS, Kondawar MS, Magdum CS, Awale  VB, Traditional uses of plants for wound healing in the  Sangli district, Maharashtra, International Journal of Pharm Tech Research, 1(3), 2009, 876-878
31.      Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S, Herbal medicines for wound  healing among tribal people in Southern India  Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences, International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 2(3), 2009,29-42
32.      Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. Periodical Experts, New Delhi, 1975; 2:  2338.
33.      Ghosh R et al., Hypoglycemic activity of ficus hispida (bark) in normal and diabetic albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2004; 36: 222-225.
34.      Shanmugarajan TS, et al., Cardioprotective effect of ficus hispida linn: On cyclophosphamide provoked oxidative myocardial injury in a rat model. Int J Pharmacol 2008; 1:1-10.
35.      Sivaraman D et al., Sedative and anticonvulsant activities of the methanol leaf extract of ficus hispida linn. Drug Invent Today 2009; 1: 23-27.
36.      Huong VN et al., A strong anticancer agent isolated from the leaves of Ficus hispida L. Tap Chi Hoa Hoc 2006; 44: 345-9.
37.      Vishnoi SP et al., Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts of Ficus hispida. Indian J Nat Prod 2004; 20: 27-9.
38.      Mandal SC et al., Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of ficus hispida. Leaf extract in rats. Fitoterapia 2002; 73: 663-667.
 

Author Information:

Ramandeep Singh*

Dept of Pharmacology, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy,  Rampurghat Road, Paonta

Sahib -173025, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA

*Corresponding Author’s Email: ramandeep_pharma@yahoo.com

 Address for Correspondences:

Mr. Ramandeep Singh, Assistant Prof.(Pharmacology) Himachal Institute of Pharmacy,  Rampur ghat Road, Paonta Sahib -173025, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA, Email- ramandeep_pharma@yahoo.com

Mob- +919736922900,  +919017138383

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