Plants have been the major source of drugs in Indian system of medicine and other ancient systems in the world. Earliest description of curative properties of medicinal plants is found in Rig-Veda, Charaka Samhita and Sushrusha Samhita give extensive description on various medicinal herbs. Information on medicinal plants in India has been systematically organized. India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine.The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products.Indian traditional medicines based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy.
Healing is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. Healing incorporates both the removal of necrotic tissue (demolition), and the replacement of this tissue.
Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that results in the restoration of disrupted anatomical continuity and disturbed functional status of the skin  accomplished by several processes which involve fibro genesis, neo-vascularization, wound contraction and epithelization  .The basic principle of optimal wound healing is to minimize tissue damage and provide adequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation, proper nutrition and moist wound healing environment to restore the .
Herbal medicines have been the basis of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. One of the surveys conducted by the WHO reports that more than 80% of the world’s population still depends upon the traditional medicines for various diseases. In the developed countries 25 percent of the chronic wounds may even lead to multiple organ failure of death of the patients. Wounds are the physical injuries that result in an opening or breaking of the skin and appropriate method for healing of wounds is essential for the restoration of disrupted anatomical continuity and disturbed functional status of the skin [5-6].
CLASSIFICATION OF WOUND
Wounds are classified as open and closed wound on the underlying cause of wound creation and acute and chronic wounds on the basis of physiology of wound healing.
In this case blood escapes the body and bleeding is clearly visible. It is further classified as: Incised wound, Laceration or tear wound, Abrasions or superficial wounds, Puncture wounds, Penetration wounds and gunshot wounds .
In closed wounds blood escapes the circulatory system but remains in the body. It includes Contusion or bruises, heamatomas or blood tumor, Crush injury etc.
Acute wound is a tissue injury that normally precedes through an orderly and timely reparative process that results in sustained restoration of anatomic and functional integrity. Acute wounds are usually caused by cuts or surgical incisions and complete the wound healing process within the expected time frame .
Chronic wounds are wounds that have failed to progress through the normal stages of healing and therefore entera state of pathologic inflammation chronic wounds either require a prolonged time to heal or recur frequently. Local infection, hypoxia, trauma, foreign bodies and systemic problems such as diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, immunodeficiency or medications are the most frequent causes of chronic wounds [8, 9].
PHASES OF WOUND HEALING:
The Inflammatory phase:
The inflammatory phase starts immediately after the injury that usually last between 24 and 48 hrs and may persist for up to 2 weeks in some cases the inflammatory phase launches the haemostatic mechanisms to immediately stop blood loss from the wound site. Clinically recognizable cardinal sign of inflammation, rubor, calor, tumor, dolor and function-laesa appear as the consequence. This phase is characterized by vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation to induce blood clotting and subsequently vasodilatation and phagocytosis to produce inflammation at the wound site .
The second phase of wound healing is the fibroplastic phase that lasts upto 2 days to 3 weeks after the inflammatory phase. This phase comprises of three steps viz., granulation, contraction and epithelialisation. In the granulation step fibroblasts form a bed of collagen and new capillaries are produced. Fibroblast produces a variety of substances essential for wound repair including glycosaminoglycans and collagen. Under the step of contraction wound edges pull together to reduces the defects in the third step epithelial tissues are formed over the wound site .
Epithelial cell migration is one of the vital processes of wound healing. The stem cells of epithelium must detach from the edges of the wound and migrate into wound. Normally dermal basal cells adhere to each other and to the underline basal layer of the dermis. Following mobilization, epithelial cells begin to enlarge and migrate down and across the wound. Transected hair follicles also contribute to the number of migrating epithelial cells. Epithelial cell migrating across wound usually move along the basal lamina or fibrin deposits, this phenomenon is called contact guidance and is an important factor in epithelial migration. Epithelial migration is followed by increased mytosis of epithelium. Recent evidence suggests that a water soluble heatlabile substance called chalone which is secreted at the wound site is responsible for regulation for mytosis. 
Proliferative Phase (2 days to 3 weeks) includes: Granulation stage: Fibroblasts lay bed of collagenFills defect and produces new capillariesContraction stage: Wound edges pull together to reduce defect. Epithelialization stage: Crosses moist surface cell travel about 3 cm from point of origin in all directions .
Wound contraction is caused by the action of differentiated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) in the granulation tissue, which contain filaments of smooth muscle actin. Contraction of these fibroblasts makes the wound margins move toward the center of the wound.[14,15] Wound contraction started sooner in ponies than in horses and it was significantly more pronounced in ponies .Additionally, it was significantly more pronounced in body wounds compared with the limb wounds. As a result, second intention wound healing was significantly faster in ponies
than in horses, and significantly faster in body wounds than in metatarsal wounds. Histology showed that myofi-broblasts were more organized in the wounds of the ponies: the myofibroblasts in the newly formed granulation tissue were transformed into a regularly organized pattern within 2 weeks, in which the cells were orientated perpendicular to the vessels and parallel to the wound surface. This appears to be a more favorable condition for wound contraction to occur. In the horses, myofibroblast organization took much longer. No differences were found in the number of fibroblasts, the amounts of smooth muscle actin and collagen. Further research was performed to investigate whether the differences in wound contraction between horses and ponies were caused by differences in the inherent contraction capacity of fibroblasts or the local environment of the fibroblasts. It was found that no differences existed in the inherent contraction capacity of fibroblasts from ponies and horses in vitro. However, the level of Transforming Growth Factor , the most important instigator of wound contraction, was significantly higher in the granulation tissue of pony wounds compared with horse wounds.
This phase last for 3 weeks to 2 years. New collagen is formed in this phase. Tissue tensile strength is increased due to intermolecular cross-linking of collagen via vitamin-C dependent hydroxylation. The scar flattens and scar tissues become 80% as strong as the original [19, 20].
The wound healing activities of plants have since been explored in folklore. Many Ayurvedic herbal plants have a very important role in the process of wound healing. Plants are more potent healers because they promote the repair mechanisms in the natural way. Extensive research has been carried out in the area of wound healing management through medicinal plants. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement and providing a moist environment to encourage the establishment of the suitable environment for natural healing process .
HERBAL PLANTS FOR WOUND HEALING:
|Family||Plant part used||Reference|
|Agave cantala Roxb.||Agavaceaae||LF||22|
|Annona squamosa L||Annonaceae||LF||23|
|3|| Aporusa lindleyana
|4|| Bidens biternata
|5|| Blumea lacera
|7|| Chloroxylon swietenia
|9|| Ficus racemosa L.
|Moraceae||BK, LF &
|10||Piper betel L.||Piperacea||LF||29
|12||Ficus bengalensis L.,||Moraceae||LF||31
|13||Datura stramonium L.||Solanaceae||LF||30
|14||Ficus religiosa L.||Moraceae||BK||31
LF- Leaf, BK- Bark and FR- Fruit
REVIEW OF LITRATURE:
Plant Name Ficus hispidaLinn.
Botanicalname Ficus hispida Linn.
Hindi – Global, Kasha, Kala Umbar, Katgularia & Phalgu.
Sanskrit- Kakodumbarika, Malayuhu, Phalgu & Phanika.
Gujarati- Umbar English
Malayalam - Kaattaththi, Paarakam
Photograph of the Ficus hispida Linn.
PLANT DESCRIPTION: A moderate sized tree grows up to 5 meters in height. Leaves opposite, long, with scrubby surfaces, pubescent; receptacles fascicled in the stem, obovoid, hispid, and green turns yellow when ripe.
Distribution: Throughout India growing wild in evergreen forests and waste lands.
Chemical constituents: Oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol, triterpenoids, flavonoids,
1. Sachdev Yadav, Mayank Kulshreshtha, Mradul Goswami, Chandana V.Rao and Veena SharmaJournal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (01); 2011: 38-41
Dept of Pharmacology, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy, Rampurghat Road, Paonta
Sahib -173025, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA
*Corresponding Author’s Email: email@example.com
Address for Correspondences:
Mr. Ramandeep Singh, Assistant Prof.(Pharmacology) Himachal Institute of Pharmacy, Rampur ghat Road, Paonta Sahib -173025, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA, Email- firstname.lastname@example.org
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